Many effective cattle fencing options exist for farmers, whether you're containing dairy, beef or bulls. The usual choices include metal, wood and wire varieties. However, you might consider combinations of these, with or without electric fencing components, based on your purposes.
Galvanised rust resistant high tensile (or "line") wire is often used for perimeter cattle fencing over long distances, or bordering roadways and wooded areas. It is very strong, when held up by securely planted wooden fence posts, the usual choice, or metal posts.
It can take a lot of of abuse, yet "spring back" to its original strength and shape after re-tensioning. Strains might be from stock pushing against it or trees or other objects falling across it. Installation is easy, typically using 4-5 strands of horizontally strung wire.
Wire strands tensioned between intermediate fence posts are held taught by corner or end straining posts These must be set securely to take the extra pull of the wire over distance, and buried at least the height of the fence. A tensioning tool will be required.
Advantages of this type of cattle fencing: the wire's strength requires fewer fence posts, saving you money. It can also be electrified, and used to hold up predator-deterring weld mesh and wire netting. It can be erected on hilly lands, but be sure to plant posts perpendicular to slopes for line tension. And, it lasts for years.
Barbed (or "barb") wire is another wire fencing used by many farmers. Not recommended where horses can contact it, it is often used to top other fences to deter climbing and leaping predators, and to keep cattle from leaning on or attempting to reach over the fencing.
The standard mild steel British barbed wire has a solid, weather-resistant galvanised coating. Also available are the cheaper high tensile version or the tougher Titan style.
Economical electrified cattle fencing is quite common nowadays. You can save the expense of more costly wooden fence posts by using metal or poly ones. Most systems can work with metal, timber or other post materials. Electro-tapes, electro-wires or electro-ropes work fine for temporary subdivision fencing within more permanent perimeter fencing. Cattle must be "trained" initially with larger shocks to learn to avoid the fence.
You'll need insulators, energisers, earthing stakes and other accessories, but it is not that hard to erect. Advantages? No damage is done to livestock, it limits cattle reaching over fencing, and it can easily divide cattle from horses and other animal types. You'll need an electric gate.
As mentioned above, wooden fence posts support many kinds of cattle fencing. Timber structures can be used for paddocks or perimeter fencing for lighter, smaller cattle. You can also use wood post and rail fencing for travel ways between fields and paddocks.
Cement fence gateposts are often used with some of the above fencing. They take extra weight from a sturdy metal gate, which is often used with cattle. AVS stock a good selection of metal field gates with spring bolts and other attachments, as well as many versions of all the above fencing.